# Chapter 4 : Bayes rule

Total Probability, Bayes rule, Tree diagrams Probability spaces: Sample space S, Probability measure P Σ p(si) = 1        si<1   Event E is a subset of S,  so:  p(E) = Σ (ps)             S<E Definition:  events A  and  B are  independent so  P(A ∩ B)=P(A) P(B), We  can extend  this to more than 2 subsets: A,B,C S , A,B,C=events, […]

# Chapter 2: basic counting and probability

Basic counting and probability Let’s count the number of words of length  K with n letters  ( repetition is  authorized): So  we have   A ,  B , B ,A ,  C ,   (K = 5    n= 3 )   generally   we  can wright (n exponant k ) words. […]

# Chapter 1: Genetic engineering

GENETIC ENGINEERING Definition: Direct and deliberate modification of an organism’s genome. Spotlights and topics in genetic engineering Hybridization Genetic tools DNA analysis (electrophoresis and PCR) Recombinant DNA technology Gene therapy Genome analysis  (fingerprinting and microarray) HYBRIDIZATION Allows identification of an unknown organism by looking at its DNA sequence. Hybridization use a DNA that binds complementary […]

# Chapter 1: Probability ( basic review of sets)

Definition : A set is a collection of mathematical or every kind of elements  e.g   A = {1,2,3,4,6,Δ,a} .1,2,3,4,6,Δ,a  are called elements of the set A and the size of elements is the absolute value of A = !A! (that is the absolute avalue of  total number of elements) .In this case the size of A is 7 […]

# Chapter 2 : Microbial genetics and evolution

Microbiology is the study of single celled creatures or organisms. They are divided in ,Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Eukaryotes  : Fungi ,Protozoa Prokaryotes : Bacteria,Archie Because bacteria are most diverse collection of organisms, it is very hard to say something universally about bacteria. So, this discussion can be inexact concerning all bacteria. Generally, bacteria are small microorganismes (eg: E […]

# Chapter 1: Mendelian genetics

Mendel crossed purple flowers (peas) with white flowers (peas) and he got purple flowers for all of the first generation. Now we should know that the first cross in any genetic cross is called the P cross or the parental cross and then the offspring’s of that are called the F1 or filial 1. When […]

# Chapter 3: eukaryote cell division

Cell division is incredibly tightly regulated (cancer  is described as an unregulated cell growth).In respect tothe cell division,there is a machinery that is a transitory state and this machinery is renewed every cell cycle. Key components of this machinery are: 1)      Spindle: is made of microtubules or cytoskeleton, centrioles, kinetochores and contractile ring. 2)      And […]

# Chapter 2:the structure of biological membranes

The plasma membrane:Is the boundary that separates, the living cell, from its surrounding and exhibits selective permeability, allowing some substances to cross it more easily than others. Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins – Phospholipids are the most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane -Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules, containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic […]

# Chapter 1: the fundamental units of life

All organisms are made of cells –          The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live (reproduce) –          Cell structure is correlated to cellular function. –          All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells   Viruses are considered not to live because there reproduction depends on other organisms How do we […]