Limbic system(physiology)

The limbic system(Physiology) The limbic system is a group of gray matter and white matter structures lodged deep within the cerebrum that are involved in four functions: olfaction, emotional responses, behavioral activities and memories. Anatomical structures: –Limbic lobe: has two main components that are cingulate gyrus (involved in memory and emotional processing and autonomic nervous […]

new treatment of irritable bowel syndrome without drugs

New treatment of irritable bowel syndrome by autonomic nervous system remodeling : Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disease. Autonomic nervous system remodeling by limbic rehabilitation is a very sophisticated technique allowing a physiological treatment  of bowel diseases . In cases of “pure irritable bowel syndrome” the efficiency of the treatment […]


Autonomic nervous system remodeling by limbic rehabilitation is a very sophisticated technique allowing a physiological treatment  of arterial  hypertension without any medication if the procedure is applied in the early stages of the disease. In cases of very old hypertension the treatment will take many times because of the abnormalities secondary to long acting hypertension […]

Chapter : The Limbic system(anatomy)

The limbic system The neurologist Paul MacLean has proposed that our skull holds not one brain, but three, each representing a distinct evolutionary stratum that has formed upon the older layer before it, like an archaeological site: He calls it the “triune brain «MacLean, says that three brains operate like “three interconnected biological computers, [each] […]

Autonomic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system consists of: 1) The Hypothalamus: which is regarded as the highest control system over the autonomic motor neurons that affect the activity of our visceral organs so the hypothalamus is the center of homeostasis (continuously and unconsciously adjusting the activity of our visceral effectors to match the person’s physical activity and energy […]

Chapter 7b : Glucose catabolism – respiratory chain

In 1935, Engelhardt analysed the rate of ATP in red blood cells (globules rouges) as a function of the rate of oxygen. The experiments showed that the ATP increases with the quantity of O2. Contrarily to the yeast, the blood cells had to be in one piece to observe the phenomenon. Even more, some enzymes […]

Chapter 8 : Glucose catabolism – aerobic oxidation

This process is coupled to the cellular respiration, involves O2 and is way more effective than the anaerobic oxidation. Instead of 2 ATP, the aerobic oxidation generates 38 ATP by glucose. It can also oxidise fatty acids and the carbonate parts of amino acids. The cycle of Krebs: cycle of the citric acid Szent Fuorgue […]

Chapter 1 : recombinant DNA technology

 Introduction To facilitate the study of genes, they must be isolated and amplified. One method of isolation and amplification of a gene of interest is to clone the gene by inserting it into another DNA molecule that serves as a vehicle or vector that can be replicated in living cells. When these two DNAs of […]

Chapter 7 : Glucose catabolism

Its goal is to supply energy to the cell wherever it is needed. The glycolysis forms pyruvate from the glucose that can next be deteriorated anaerobically to form lactate or ethanol through fermentation. In 1870, Louis Pasteur discovered the functioning of yeasts. He isolated one yeast and added it to a wine that was not […]

Chapter 6 : nucleic acids

Nucleic acids are composed of monosaccharides connected by phosphoester liaisons and wearing a base. One monosaccharide and its base are called one nucleoside. One monosaccharide, its base and one phosphate are called a nucleotide. RNA and DNA are composed of one similar monosaccharide, the ribofuranose, with the difference that the 2’ has an H on […]