Chapter 3d: Reactions in organic chemistry: Nucleophilic reactions

We will now discuss the types of reactions that can be performed on organic compounds. In this first year lessons, we will only focus on one of the most used reactions: the nucleophilic substitution (SN). A substitution reaction is indeed the base of the organic chemistry: its goal is to substitute one group of a […]

Chapter 3e: Functional groups

Other than alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and halogenoalkanes, there is a large number of functional groups that can be found in organic chemistry. In this first year, we will only take a look on the richness of possibilities that organic chemistry allows through the functional groups a carbohydrate chain can wear, and of some of their […]

Chapter 3c: alkenes and alkynes

Alkenes Alkenes are organic compounds made of carbons and hydrogens. Opposite to alkanes, which have the same components, the general formula of alkenes is not CnH2n+2. Into an alkene, two carbons are bound by a pi liaison (also called double liaison). The smaller alkene is the ethene CH2=CH2. To make this liaison, each carbon shares […]

Chapter 3a: Organic chemistry, structure and names of alkanes

Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon and its compounds. Carbon is one element of the Mendeleev table among many others, so why is there a complete section of chemistry related to this particular element? Carbon has a valence of 4 and can thus bind with up to 4 other elements of the periodic table. […]

Chapter 2c: Neutralization and titration

Neutralization A neutralization reaction is the reaction occurring between an acid and a base forming a salt and water. Technically, the neutralisation is not a one step reaction in the sense that all the actions are not done simultaneously but step by step. The fist step is the dissociation of the acid and base from […]

Chapter 2b: Strength of acids and bases

The general definition of an acid is thus a compound releasing protons. However, all the acids don’t have the same strength or acidity. We can define two types of acids and bases: Strong acids and bases, and weak acids and bases. For more simplicity, we will focus on acids in this lesson but the principle is identical for […]