Chapter 1 : Infrared spectroscopy

The IR spectroscopy has a different goal than the UV/visible. It is one of the strongest methods to determine the structure of organic compounds. An IR spectrum is similar to the finger print of one molecule and the matching of peaks can tell us if a molecule is in the sample or not. The spectrum […]

Chapter 2 : the chemical composition of DNA

DNA is a polymer ( a large molecule that contains repeating units) composed of 2’ deoxyribose (a five-carbon sugar), phosphoric acid, and the four nitrogen containing bases denoted A, T, G and C. The chemical structures of the bases are shown below. Note that two of the bases have a double-ring structure, these are called […]

Chapter 12 : Spectroscopic methods

Spectroscopic methods are destined to determine the composition of samples containing one or several species on the basis of their energy levels. We have seen that the electrons of atoms don’t have access to any value of energy. They are limited to a few values of energy, the energy orbital’s/levels 1s, 2s, 2p, etc, on […]