Chapter 7b : Glucose catabolism – respiratory chain

In 1935, Engelhardt analysed the rate of ATP in red blood cells (globules rouges) as a function of the rate of oxygen. The experiments showed that the ATP increases with the quantity of O2. Contrarily to the yeast, the blood cells had to be in one piece to observe the phenomenon. Even more, some enzymes […]

Chapter 8 : Glucose catabolism – aerobic oxidation

This process is coupled to the cellular respiration, involves O2 and is way more effective than the anaerobic oxidation. Instead of 2 ATP, the aerobic oxidation generates 38 ATP by glucose. It can also oxidise fatty acids and the carbonate parts of amino acids. The cycle of Krebs: cycle of the citric acid Szent Fuorgue […]

Chapter 1 : recombinant DNA technology

 Introduction To facilitate the study of genes, they must be isolated and amplified. One method of isolation and amplification of a gene of interest is to clone the gene by inserting it into another DNA molecule that serves as a vehicle or vector that can be replicated in living cells. When these two DNAs of […]

Chapter 7 : Glucose catabolism

Its goal is to supply energy to the cell wherever it is needed. The glycolysis forms pyruvate from the glucose that can next be deteriorated anaerobically to form lactate or ethanol through fermentation. In 1870, Louis Pasteur discovered the functioning of yeasts. He isolated one yeast and added it to a wine that was not […]

Chapter 6 : nucleic acids

Nucleic acids are composed of monosaccharides connected by phosphoester liaisons and wearing a base. One monosaccharide and its base are called one nucleoside. One monosaccharide, its base and one phosphate are called a nucleotide. RNA and DNA are composed of one similar monosaccharide, the ribofuranose, with the difference that the 2’ has an H on […]

Chapter 5 : 3D structure of proteins

The structure of the protein is obtained during the formation of the protein. The structure of the protein is necessary for its function: some active sites are present on the proteins. Those sites are highly specific to one target substrate. Other substrates cannot reach the active site. The rest of the molecule is mostly there […]

Chapter 4 : Primary structure of proteins

The primary structure of a protein is the succession, or sequence, of the AA. Proteins are made of one linear chain of amino acids. This linear chain takes a 3D structure (secondary and tertiary structures) because of the interactions between the sequences in the chain and the interactions (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) with the surrounding. The […]

Chapter 3 : Proteins and amino acids

The word protein comes from the Greek word proteos, which means first. Proteins are indeed one essential element of the life. They are well defined in composition, size and shape and each one has a very precise role: transport, defence, hormones, … Some have also an exotic role. For instance some proteins prevent the blood […]

Chapter 2 : Glucides

Glucides are essentially cyclic hydrates of carbon (CN(H2O)N) but can also wear N, S, P. The cycles are usually 5 or 6 atoms long and form macromolecules when cycles bind together. One example is the cellulose, which is the walls of vegetables. As humans, we don’t properly digest the cellulose contained in the salads we eat […]

Chapter 1: Biochemistry – Introduction and lipids

Biochemistry is a field of the chemistry related to the living bodies, animal or vegetal. This field is far from the inorganic chemistry and a simple comparison can show it: the repartition of the molecules in the earth’s crust and in a living body are totally different. The first is essentially composed of silica and […]