Chapter 6 : cellular energy production

                                        AEROBIC WAY The citric acid cycle completes the energy yielding oxidation of organic molecules. In the presence of O2, pyruvate enters the mitochondrion. Before the citric acid cycle can begin, pyruvate must be converted to […]

Chapter 5 : bioenergetics

                         Introduction to bioenergetics Cellular respiration is composed of three topics: Redox reactions (oxidation-reduction) Electron transport chain Glycolysis In fact living cells require energy from outside sources. Some animals obtain energy by eating plants and some others feed on other organisms that eat plants, and […]

Chapter 1: sequences and series

     Sequences and series   Consider the following sum: The dots at the end indicate that the sum goes on forever. Does this make sense? Can we assign a numerical value to an infinite sum? While at first it may seem difficult or impossible, we have certainly done something similar when we talked about […]

Chapter 4: enzyme substrate complex

Substrate specificity of enzymes -The reaction that an enzyme acts on is called the enzyme’s substrate. -The enzyme binds to its substrate forming an enzyme-substrate complex -The active site is the region on the enzyme where the substrate binds. -Induced fit of a substrate brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance […]

Chapter 3 : cellular metabolism

                                            Cellular metabolism –          Metabolic path ways –          Thermodynamics –          Free energy –          Introduction to enzymes Overview: the energy of life The living cell is a miniature chemical factory where thousands of reactions occur.The […]