Chapter 3a: the motion- the position

The first formalism that has to be known in physics is the formalism of the motion. A formalism is associated with a certain rigorous mathematical method, defining symbols and rules that are commonly accepted, in the goal that everybody understands immediately the discussed matter. We will not be interested in the prediction of the motion nor […]

Chapter 1: Elementary physics – Introduction

Definitions and laws “One of the noblest desire of the man is to know the laws ruling the Universe, and those who contributed to enlighten some of the mysteries were always admired by their peers; they appear as privileged, wearing on them the divine light, a through centuries the generations gaze upon their indelible work […]

Chapter 11 : specific features of meiosis

Meiosis has three unique features : The mechanism of cell division varies in important details in different organism. This is particularly true of chromosomal separation mechanism, which differ substantially in protists and fungi from the process in plants and animals that we will describe here. Meiosis in a diploid organism consists of two rounds of […]

Chapter 10 : meiosis

The sequence of events during meiosis involves two nuclear divisions ( meiosis I and meiosis II ). Prophase 1 In prophase 1 of meiosis, the DNA coils tighter, and individual chromosomes first become visible under the light microscope as a matrix of fine threads. Because the DNA has already replicated before the onset of meiosis, […]

Chapter 4d: Solids – lattice energy

In gases, the heat capacity was a resultant of translation, vibration and rotation. In a solid, there is no translation and no rotation. The atoms may vibe around their equilibrium position. The vibration involves a potential energy and a kinetic energy, each term participating for ½R. As a solid has 3 dimensions, Cv=3R However, this […]

Chapter 4c: Solids – crystallography

A characteristic of the solids is that they have their own shape. Liquids are taking the shape of their recipient and gases take all the available space. So solids have their own shape but some are malleable, can be cut, be creased or smashed or can be very rigid. As explained at the beginning of […]

Chapter 4a: The states of matter: Gas

The states of the matter We can consider 3 different states –gas, liquid and solid– and a melange of them. One important difference between the three states of the matter is the volume they occupy. A gaz takes all the available space, a liquid takes the form of its recipient and a solid has its […]